This white paper presents the recent knowledge of system ESD field events and air discharge testing methods. Testing experience with the IEC 61000-4-2 (2008) and the ISO 10605 ESD standards has shown a range of differing interpretations of the test method and its scope. This often results in misapplication of the test method and a high test result uncertainty. This white paper aims to explain the problems observed and to suggest improvements to the ESD test standard and to enable a correlation with a SEED IC/PCB co-design methodology. This white paper is divided into a part on direct pin stressing (Part A) and IEC 61000-4-2 testing of chassis and display which is typically a type of air discharge (Part B). Part A discusses the necessary industry alignments and standardization to support a unified SEED design procedure. Part B provides the input to improve the calibration and test reliability of IEC 61000-4-2 in the air discharge mode.